Objective: Students will be able to calculate the damage done to an ecosystem by improper disposal of used motor oil.

Materials: paper and pencils, student worksheet

Background: Everyone gets upset when large oil spills occur and contaminate beaches and harbors. We are horrified and made angry by pictures of oil-soaked aquatic birds and mammals, however, not all oil spills are publicized disasters. Unnoticed spills occur more frequently and are more dangerous to human health and aquatic ecosystems.

Did you know that over 40% of oil pollution comes from people who change their own motor oil? Millions of gallons of used motor oil are dumped in landfills, storm drains, and on the ground each year. This oil contains harmful pollutants, such as lead and zinc, and is considered hazardous waste. It makes its way to streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater, where it causes severe damage to the ecosystem. Used motor oil is a major contributor to the urban runoff problem.

Procedure:
Conduct a class discussion of marine oil spills versus "land oil spills (disposal of used motor oil).

After the discussion, have students complete the student worksheet.

Extensions:
Oil and the contaminants it contains cause real problems in the food web of any ecosystem. Bioaccumulation is one of these problems. Research the bioaccumulation of oil and its contaminants in the food web of a large lake. Make a poster or mural to illustrate your findings.

Write a skit or play, complete with a song or two, about the benefits of recycling used motor oil.

Investigate disposal methods of used oil from school buses in your school or school district. Contact the proper officials and discuss the benefits of recycling the oil.

Vocabulary Glossary:
Bioaccumulation: The buildup of a material in the body of an organism
Bioremediation: The use of a living organism to help remedy a problem in an ecosystem
Crude Oil: Unrefined petroleum
Ecosystem: A group of interacting species within a physical environment
Hazardous Waste: Wastes that are dangerous to human health and/or the environment
Pollutants: An impurity (contaminant) that causes an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the air, water, or land that may be harmful to or affect the health, survival or activities of humans or other living organisms
Runoff: Water (originating as precipitation) that flows across surfaces rather than soaking in; eventually enters a water body; may pick up and carry a variety of pollutants
Grade Level:
4-6

Subject Areas:
Science, Math, Reading

SD Standards for 4th grade:
Science
4.L.2.1

Math
4.A.1.3; 4.A.3.1; 4.N.3.1

Reading
4.R.1.1; 4.R.1.2; 4.R.5.1; 4.R.5.2

Setting:
Classroom

Skills:
Organizing, Estimating, Calculating, Interpreting (identifying cause and effect)

Prior Preparation: Students should understand that water is shared by everyone, as well as the pollutants carried within the watershed. (Students can find out where used motor oil can be recycled in your community by contacting a local government agency, such as the Department of Environmental Quality). Have various references on oil in the environment available for student research. Some very good sources of information are: US EPA, the Department of Environmental Quality, the Department of Natural Resources, and the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries or a local nature center.

Vocabulary:
ecosystem, hazardous waste, pollutants, runoff, bioaccumulation, crude oil, bioremediation
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